The phytochrome is a protein with activity kinase present in green vegetables, whose function is to act as a photoreceptor primarily red light (600-700nm) and far-red (700-800nm), thanks to obtaining a chromophore . Phytochrome in the sort of detected light can trigger different responses in the plant, such as flowering , the germination , growth and escape response to the improvement of epicotyls shadow at evening and throughout the day-cotyledons, regulation of expression metabolic activity in the course of day and evening ( circadian rhythms ).
Phytochromes have been discovered in the fifties as part of an investigation into the effect of light on the germination of seeds of lettuce . It was noted that they accounted for 20% seeds germinated in darkness, by contrast, the percentage of germination was maximum when irradiated seeds with a pulse of red light (R). We discovered also that subsequent irradiation with far-red light pulse (RL) canceling the inductive impact of red light, stopping germination.
The alternate irradiation with light R and RL (R, R + RL R + RL + R, R + RL + R + RL, and so on..) Showed that the last colour applied determined the germination of green fluorescent protein seeds and light was red procedure stimulating factor and its inhibitor, far-red light.
In search of an explanation of such phenomena is proposed the existence of a pigment , which they known as phytochrome, absorbing red light. Phytochrome in query, soon after absorbing red light, turned into a type capable of absorbing far-red radiation, so that rendered its initial condition soon after producing such an absorption. Experimental assistance the hypothesis discovered in the early sixties with purification, from extracts of seedlings of cereals, a protein endowed with the predicted traits.
The phytochromes are proteins soluble located in the seeds , leaves , stems , roots and other plant organs. 2
Biochemically, phytochrome is a protein with a chromophore Bilin .
Phytochrome has been identified in most plants, which includes all higher plants, also very comparable molecules have been identified in a number of bacteria . A fragment of a bacterial phytochrome has clarified the structure of the protein 3-dimensional.
Other plant photoreceptors consist of the cryptochromes and phototropins , which are sensitive to light blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum.
The phytoestrogens are chemical compounds nonsteroidal, located in plants but are related to estrogens human action and similarly (oestrogenic) or green fluorescent protein opposite (antiestrogenic impact) thereto. Generally discovered in quite tiny amounts in foods. Its estrogenic activity is mainly due to its chemical similarity with animal hormones. The mycoestrogens have related effects. Its relevance to nutrition study is nevertheless in effect in locations such as the regulation of cholesterol or of sustaining the bone density at menopause. Given that the ingestion of these compounds is connected to a distinct eating habits is tough to distinguish the true trigger of the positive effects.
These compounds are mainly flavonoids . The greatest known are isoflavones generally located in soy and in red clover . The lignan phytoestrogen is also an crucial although not a flavonoid.
Although it can be identified numerous methods:
The most active and relevant for human consumption are the 1st.
The isoflavones discovered in a selection of plants and vegetables, specifically in legumes and grasses . Two of the most abundant species in these chemical compounds are soy and red clover .
To exert their beneficial effect on the physique, need to be altered by the gut and then metabolized and processed at the liver .
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Originally posted 2013-08-27 12:41:46.